Graphene: Electronic Structure

Tunable Excitons in Biased Bilayer Graphene

Cheol-Hwan Park and Steven G. Louie

Nano Lett., 2010, 10 (2), pp 426–431

Recent measurements have shown that a continuously tunable bandgap of up to 250 meV can be generated in biased bilayer graphene [Y. Zhang et al., Nature 459, 820 (2009)], opening up pathway for possible graphene-based nanoelectronic and nanophotonic devices operating at room temperature. Here, we show that the optical response of this system is dominated by bound excitons. The main feature of the optical absorbance spectrum is determined by a single symmetric peak arising from excitons, a profile that is markedly different from that of an interband transition picture. Under laboratory conditions, the binding energy of the excitons may be tuned with the external bias going from zero to several tens of meV’s. These novel strong excitonic behaviors result from a peculiar, effective “one-dimensional” joint density of states and a continuously-tunable bandgap in biased bilayer graphene. Moreover, we show that the electronic structure (level degeneracy, optical selection rules, etc.) of the bound excitons in a biased bilayer graphene is markedly different from that of a two-dimensional hydrogen atom because of the pseudospin physics.

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Interaction-Induced Shift of the Cyclotron Resonance of Graphene Using Infrared Spectroscopy

E. A. Henriksen1, P. Cadden-Zimansky, Z. Jiang, Z. Q. Li, L.-C. Tung, M. E. Schwartz, M. Takita, Y.-J. Wang, P. Kim, and H. L. Stormer

Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 067404 (2010)

We report a study of the cyclotron resonance (CR) transitions to and from the unusual n=0 Landau level (LL) in monolayer graphene. Unexpectedly, we find the CR transition energy exhibits large (up to 10%) and nonmonotonic shifts as a function of the LL filling factor, with the energy being largest at half filling of the n=0 level. The magnitude of these shifts, and their magnetic field dependence, suggests that an interaction-enhanced energy gap opens in the n=0 level at high magnetic fields. Such interaction effects normally have a limited impact on the CR due to Kohn’s theorem [W. Kohn, Phys. Rev. 123, 1242 (1961)], which does not apply in graphene as a consequence of the underlying linear band structure.

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The electronic properties of graphene

Reviews of Modern Physics 81, 109-162 (2009)


A. H. Castro Neto, F. Guinea, N. M. R. Peres, K. S. Novoselov & A. K. Geim


This article reviews the basic theoretical aspects of graphene, a one-atom-thick allotrope of carbon, with unusual two-dimensional Dirac-like electronic excitations. The Dirac electrons can be controlled by application of external electric and magnetic fields, or by altering sample geometry and/or topology. The Dirac electrons behave in unusual ways in tunneling, confinement, and the integer quantum Hall effect. The electronic properties of graphene stacks are discussed and vary with stacking order and number of layers. Edge surface states in graphene depend on the edge termination zigzag or armchair and affect the physical properties of nanoribbons. Different types of disorder modify the Dirac equation leading to unusual spectroscopic and transport properties. The effects of electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions in single layer and multilayer graphene are also presented.